MARS - Volcanoes
Mars has a two of areas which seem to concentrate
volcanoes. They are by name Tharsis Montes and Elysium Plantitia. The Tharsis Montes chain has three large
volcanoes that are lined up in a row; Arsia Mons, Pavonis Mons, and Ascraeus Mons, which have a maximum altitude of 27 km.
There are 2 smaller volcanoes know as Ceraunius Tholus and Tharsis Tholus.
NASA/JPL/Malin Space Science Systems
The Tharsis Montes includes Olympus Mons, the largest known volcano
in the solar system, which is northwest of the Tharsis Montes chain. Taller than three Mount Everest’s and about as
wide as the entire Hawaiian Island chain, this giant volcano appears nearly as flat as a pancake from space. Olympus Mons
is the largest of the major Tharsis volcanoes, rising 25 kilometers (15.5 miles) and stretching over nearly 550 kilometers
(340 miles) east-west. The summit caldera, a composite of as many as seven roughly circular collapse depressions, is 66 by
83 kilometers (41 by 52 miles) across.
is one of three large volcanoes that occur on the Elysium Rise, the others are Hecates Tholus (northeast of Elysium Mons)
and Albor Tholus (southeast of Elysium Mons). The volcano rises about 12.5 kilometers (7.8 miles) above the surrounding plain.
Elysium Mons has many craters on its surface. Some of these probably formed by meteor impact, but many show no ejecta pattern
characteristic of meteor impact. Some of the craters are aligned in linear patterns that are radial to the summit caldera.
These most likely formed by collapse as lava was withdrawn from beneath the surface, rather than by meteor impact.
Other craters may have formed by explosive volcanism. Evidence for explosive volcanism on Mars has been very difficult to
identify from previous Mars spacecraft images.